Leon Lemmer: Die nuwe Suid-Afrika as George Orwell se ‘Animal Farm’

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Die Britse outeur George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair, 1903-1950) het met veral twee romans bekendheid verwerf: Animal Farm (1945) en Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). In die Spaanse Burgeroorlog (1936-1939) het hy aan die kant van die Republikeine teen Francisco Franco se Nasionaliste geveg. Hy het daaroor in Homage to Catalonia (1938) geskryf. Die Republikeine word met kommunisme en die Nasionaliste met fascisme geassosieer. In werklikheid was Orwell ‘n sosialis wat teen sowel kommunisme as fascisme gekant was en by uitstek teen outoritêre, totalitêre, anargistiese regerings. Dit is die tema van Animal Farm.

Orwell het van 1943 tot 1944 aan hierdie teks geskryf, maar kon aanvanklik nie ‘n uitgewer daarvoor vind nie omdat die Sowjetunie ‘n bondgenoot van Brittanje in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945) was en Orwell spesifiek die bewind van Josef Stalin op die oog gehad het. In hierdie rubriek poog ek om ‘n bietjie pret te hê deur inleeswerk in die satiriese Animal Farm oor die nogal kommunistiese ANC-regering te doen. Ek weerhou my egter daarvan om elke keer op voor die hand liggende ooreenkomste of verskille te wys. Nineteen Eighty-Four leen hom tot dieselfde soort ding maar dit sal tot ‘n latere geleentheid moet wag. Albei boeke sou uitstekende voorgeskrewe werke in ons skole en universiteite kon wees.

Ek gebruik een van die talle uitgawes van Orwell se gesamentlike werke wat in elektroniese vorm beskikbaar is. Dit bring mee dat ek vir akkurate bronverwysings elke keer ‘n Kindle-verwysing met vyf syfers sou verskaf. Dit is egter onwaarskynlik dat Praag-lesers presies dieselfde elektroniese of gedrukte uitgawe as ek beskikbaar het. Omdat Animal Farm uit tien kort hoofstukke bestaan, dui ek na elke aanhaling liewer net die hoofstuknommer aan sodat lesers redelik maklik die aanhaling kan opgespoor.

Meneer Jones (De Klerk?) was die eienaar van Manor Farm maar die plaasdiere het teen hom in opstand gekom en hom en sy vrou van die plaas verdryf. Major, ‘n stokou vark, het die leiding in die rebellie geneem deur by ‘n byeenkoms die plaasdiere as kamerade aan te spreek en hulle wys te maak dat hulle deur Jones uitgebuit word: “Man is the only real enemy we have … all the evils of this life of ours spring from the tyranny of human beings. Only get rid of Man, and the produce of our labour would be our own. Almost overnight we could become rich and free … justice will be done” (hoofstuk I). In hoofstuk II word hierdie utopie Sugercandy Mountain genoem. Major (Mandela?*) het nie geweet of die opstand in sy leeftyd of later sou plaasvind nie: “Pass on this message of mine to those who come after you, so that future generations shall carry on the struggle until it is victorious” (I).

[* Orwell begin sy essay, “Reflections on Gandhi” (1949), met hierdie koeëlvaste sin: “Saints should always be judged guilty until they are proved innocent”.]

Hoeveel keer moet ons nie aanhoor hoe die “struggle” gestry en hoe beweerde heeltemal onskuldige bloed gevloei het nie? “Among us animals let there be perfect unity, perfect comradeship in the struggle. All men are enemies. All animals are comrades” (I). Nie net die boer se plaasdiere nie maar ook die rotte en hase is tot kamerade in die vryheidstryd verklaar. “Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. And remember also that in fighting against Man, we must not come to resemble him. Even when you have conquered him, do not adopt his vices. No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade. All the habits of Man are evil. And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers. No animal must ever kill any other animal. All animals are equal” (I).

Na Major se toespraak het die diere vyf keer hulle stryd- of bevrydingsliedjie, “Beasts of England” (Nkosi Sikeleli Afrika?), oor hulle “golden future time” gesing. Hierna het ‘n ander vark, ‘n kleintjie wat ‘n “brilliant talker” was, genaamd Squealer (Maharaj?), die amptelike woordvoerder in die aanhitsing tot geweld geword: “He could turn black into white” (II). Twee ander varke, Snowball (Mbeki?) en Napoleon (Zuma?), het aktivisties op die voorgrond getree. Snowball het dit duidelik gemaak dat slawerny afgesweer en vryheid omarm moet word. Die ideologie wat die kamerade aangehang het, is Dierlikheid/”Animalism” (Afrikanisme/Transformasie?) genoem. In die nag is geheime byeenkomste gehou om die beginsels te formuleer waarop Dierlikheid gebaseer is.

Na al die opsweping tot geweld en toe die plaaseienaar besope was (Orwell sê nie of Jones met ‘n ander vrou gelol het nie) en die vier plaaswerkers (die hensoppers Botha, Meyer, Wessels en De Villiers?) nagelaat het om die diere kos te gee, het die rebellie uitgebreek. Dit het met die diefstal van kos begin: “All the animals began to help themselves from the bins” (II). Jones en sy plaaswerkers het met swepe op die diere toegesak maar die solidariteit van die diere het hulle in staat gestel om al die plaasmense te verdryf. “Jones was expelled, and the Manor Farm was theirs … In a very little while the animals had destroyed everything that reminded them of Mr Jones. Napoleon then led them back to the store-shed and served out a double ration of corn to everybody, with two biscuits for each dog. Then they sang ‘Beasts of England’ from end to end seven times running” (II). Orwell noem nie of hulle ook getoi-toi het nie.

Die volgende oggend het die diere mekaar herinner aan “the glorious thing that had happened” (II). Hulle het by die hoogste punt op die plaas byeengekom en alles rondom hulle gadegeslaan: “It was theirs – everything that they could see was theirs! … they hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement … they could hardly believe that it was all their own” (II). Hulle het die binnekant van die plaashuis gaan inspekteer. “Some hams [gesneuwelde kamerade?] hanging in the kitchen were taken out for burial, and the barrel of beer in the scullery was stove in with a kick from Boxer’s [a horse’s] hoof, otherwise nothing in the house was touched. A unanimous resolution was passed on the spot that the farmhouse should be preserved as a museum [soos die standbeelde van blankes?]. All were agreed that no animal must ever live there” (II).

Hierna het twee varke, Snowball en Napoleon, hulle kamarade opgeroep om te begin werk. Maar daar was ‘n saak wat eers aandag moes kry. Hulle is met ‘n pot swart en ‘n pot wit verf en ‘n kwas na die bordjie op die plaashek. Snowball “painted out MANOR FARM from the top bar of the gate and in its place painted ANIMAL FARM” (II). Daarna het die varke die ander diere ingelig dat hulle “succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to seven Commandments … they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal Farm must live for ever after” (II). Hierdie sewe gebooie is duidelik in groot letters op ‘n muur geverf: “1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. 2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 7. All animals are equal” (II). Aan die einde van die boek blyk dit dat nie ‘n enkele van hierdie sewe gebooie eerbiedig is nie.

“It was … found that the stupider animals, such as the sheep, hens, and ducks, were unable to learn the Seven Commandments by heart. After much thought Snowball declared that the Seven Commandments could in effect be reduced to a single maxim, namely: ‘Four legs good, two legs bad.’ This, he said, contained the essential principle of Animalism” (III). Jones het egter gedink dat sy plaas deur “a pack of good-for-nothing animals” oorgeneem is (IV). Die buurmense “scorn the idea of animals managing a farm for themselves” (IV). Die opstandige diere op Animal Farm het veroorsaak dat “a wave of rebelliousness ran through the countryside” (IV). Die diere is wysgemaak: “The only good human being is a dead one” (IV). “Snowball made a little speech, emphasising the need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal Farm if need be” (IV). Met die oog hierop is militêre dekorasies, eerste en tweede klas, uitgedink. Die Rebellie is elke jaar herdenk.

Hierna was die diere se eerste taak om die koeie te melk en daarna is hulle na die landerye om te oes. “The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others. With their superior knowledge it was natural that they should assume the leadership” (III). Van die begin af was daar dus geen werklike gelykheid nie, soortgelyk aan die voorkeur wat aan ANC-kamerade gegee word wat kwaad gedoen het en in die tronk of in MK was. “The mystery of where the milk went to was soon cleared up. It was mixed every day into the pigs’ mash” (III). Aanvanklik het hierdie korrupsie ongemerk plaasgevind.

“The animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be … it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master. With the worthless parasitical human beings gone, there was more for everyone to eat. There was more leisure too” (III).

“The early apples were now ripening, and the grass of the orchard was littered with windfalls. The animals had assumed as a matter of course that these would be shared out equally” (III), dus dat almal in dieselfde mate op die soustrein is. “One day, however, the order went forth that all the windfalls were to be collected and brought to the harness-room for the use of the pigs. At this some of the other animals murmured, but it was no use. All the pigs were in full agreement on this point … Squealer was sent to make the necessary explanations to the others. ‘Comrades!’ he cried. ‘You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? … Milk and apples … contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for YOUR sake that we drink the milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back!’ … They did not want Jones back … So it was agreed without further argument that the milk and the windfall apples (and also the main crop of apples when they ripened) should be reserved for the pigs alone” (III).

Party diere “was not good at getting up in the mornings, and had a way of leaving work early” (III). Ander diere “when there was work to be done … could never be found … would vanish for hours on end, and then reappear at mealtimes, or in die evening after work was over … [they] always made such excellent excuses … the donkey … never voluntering for extra work … On Sundays there was no work. Breakfast was an hour later than usual, and after breakfast there was a ceremony which was observed every week without fail. First came the hoisting of the flag. Snowball had found in the harness-room an old green tablecloth of Mrs Jones’s and had painted on it a hoof and a horn” (III), wat herinner aan die hamer en sekel op die vlag van die Sowjetunie, asook aan die groen in en die spies en skild op die ANC se vlag.

Daarna is vergadering gehou. “It was always the pigs who put forward the resolutions. The other animals understood how to vote, but could never think of any resolutions of their own” (III). Daar was spoedig tekens van wrywing tussen twee van die leidende varke, Snowball en Napoleon. “The Meeting always ended with the singing of ‘Beasts of England'” (III). “It had come to be accepted that the pigs, who were manifestly cleverer than the other animals, should decide all questions of farm policy, though their decisions had to be ratified by a majority vote” (V), soos dit ‘n jong demokrasie betaam.

Snowball “busied himself with organising the other animals into what he called Animal Committees” (III). Vir wilde kamerade was daar bv die “Re-education Committee (the object of this was to tame the rats and rabbits) … The attempt to tame the wild creatures … broke down almost immediately. They continued to behave very much as before, and when treated with generosity, simply took advantage of it” (III). Dink bv aan die swart studente wat tans toegelaat word om landswyd chaos op die universiteitskampusse te saai. Die ou hoofvark Major het egter besluit: “Meetings would come to an end. They were unnecessary, he said, and wasted time. In future all questions relating to the working of the farm would be settled by a special committee of pigs, presided over by himself. These would meet in private and afterwards communicate their decisions to the others. The animals would still assemble on Sunday mornings to salute the flag, sing ‘Beasts of England’, and receive their orders for the week; but there would be no more debates” (V).

Al die diere was nie sonder meer met die nuwe reëlings tevrede nie, maar die domste diere het hierdie uitdaging aanvaar. “The sheep broke out into a tremendous bleating of ‘Four legs good, two legs bad!’ which went on for nearly a quarter of an hour and put an end to any chance of discussion” (V). “No one believes more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal. He would be only too happy to let you make your decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the wrong decisions, comrades, and then where should we be? … ‘Bravery is not enough,’ said Squealer. ‘Loyalty and obedience are more important … Discipline, comrades, iron discipline! … Surely, comrades, you do not want Jones back?'” (V). Die perd Boxer het toe hierdie leuse aanvaar: “Napoleon is always right” (V).

Die plaasdiere se eerste groot projek was nie om luukse voertuie of duur wapens aan te koop of om op nog grond beslag te lê nie, maar om ‘n windmeul te bou; nie om die boerdery te verbeter nie, maar om arbeid mettertyd te verminder: “The animals would [then] only need to work three days a week” (V). Maar die windmeul moet eers gebou word. Die varke het toesig oor die bouery gehou. Napoleon “warned the animals that this extra task would mean very hard work, it might even be necessary to reduce their rations” (V). Die diere het ‘n sestig-ure-werkweek gehad. Later “Napoleon announced that there would be work on Sunday afternoons as well. This work was strictly voluntary, but any animal who absented himself from it would have his rations reduced by half … The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields … were not sown because the ploughing had not been completed early enough” (VI).

Sekere items moes vir die windmeul aangekoop word. Napoleon het aangekondig dat Animal Farm gaan begin om handel te dryf. “He was therefore making arrangements to sell a stack of hay and part of the current year’s wheat crop, and later on, if more money were needed, it would have to be made up by the sale of eggs … The hens, said Napoleon, should welcome this sacrifice as their own special contribution towards the building of the windmill” (VI). Party diere het besware geopper, maar “they were promptly silenced by a tremendous growling” (VI) van nege kwaai, jong honde wat as voltydse lyfwagte Napoleon voortaan beskerm het. “Every human being held it as an article of faith that the farm would go bankrupt sooner or later, and above all, that the windmill would be a failure” (VI). Rommelstatus was Animal Farm se voorland, veral nadat ‘n stormwind die halfvoltooide windmeul vernietig het.

“It was about this time that the pigs suddenly moved into the farmhouse and took up their residence there … Squealer … said that the pigs, who were the brains of the farm, should have a quiet place to work in. It was also more suited to the dignity of the Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of Napoleon under the title of ‘Leader’) to live in a house than in a mere sty” (VI). Die vierde gebod is verander om te lees: “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets” (VI). Squealer het gesê: “‘We have removed the sheets from the farmhouse beds, and sleep between blankets’ … It was announced that from now on the pigs would get up an hour later in the mornings than the other animals” (VI). Die voorbeeldige Max du Preez met sy ruime hart, waarin daar plek vir almal behalwe die Afrikaners is, sou ongetwyfeld beswaar teen hierdie ons/hulle-onderskeid gemaak het.

Major was reeds 12 jare oud toe die suksesvolle Rebellie uitgebreek het. Kort na die aanvang van Animal Farm is hy toe dood. Snowball was sy aangewese opvolger, maar Napoleon was slinkser en het groter steun gemobiliseer. Snowball is toe herroep en nie eens herontplooi nie, maar eerder weggeplooi deur hom van die plaas te verdryf. Daar was gerugte dat Snowball sommige nagte terugkeer en kwaad doen. “Whenever anything went wrong it became usual to attribute it to Snowball” (VII). Hy het bv die skuld gekry vir die storm wat die windmeul verwoes het. Snowball het as sondebok dus dieselfde funksie as apartheid vervul. Napoleon het die doodstraf oor Snowball uitgespreek. Die geskiedenis is herskryf: “‘Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,’ announced Squealer, speaking very slowly and firmly, ‘has stated categorically – categorically, comrade – that Snowball was Jones’s agent from the very beginning – yea, and from long before the Rebellion was ever thought of'” (VII).

“Squealer made excellent speeches on the joy of service and the dignity of labour” (VII) omdat die windmeul ‘n hernude uitdaging was wat van voor af herbou sou word. “In January [winter] food fell short … Starvation seemed to stare them in the face” (VII). “In these days Napoleon rarely appeared in public, but spent all his time in the farmhouse, which was guarded at each door by fierce-looking dogs. When he did emerge, it was in a ceremonial manner, with an escort of six dogs who closely surrounded him and growled if anyone came too near” (VII). Byvoorbeeld, “Napoleon emerged from the farmhouse, wearing both his medals (for he had recently awarded himself ‘Animal Hero, First Class’), with his nine huge dogs frisking round him and uttering growls that sent shivers down all the animals’ spines” (VII).

“Even in the farmhouse, it was said, Napoleon inhabited separate apartments from the others” (VIII). “Pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of all Animals, Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep-fold, Ducklings’ Friend, and the like” (VIII). Toe die windmeul na twee jaar se arbeid voltooi is, Napoleon “personally congratulated the animals on their achievement, and announced that the mill would be named Napoleon Mill” (VIII). Hy was in die benydenswaardige posisie dat hy die enigste beervark op die plaas was en het verseker dat talle varkies jaarliks hulle opwagting maak. Hierdie varkies “were discouraged from playing with the other young animals” (IX). “About this time, too, it was laid down as a rule that when a pig and any other animal met on the path, the other animal must stand aside [dink aan hoe daar padgegee moet word as ‘n ANC-minister se motorstoet êrens heen op pad is, hetsy vir werk of plesier]; and also that all pigs, of whatever degree, were to have the privilege of wearing green ribbons on their tails on Sundays” (IX). Net Napoleon is toegelaat om suiker op sy tafel te hê.

Al die opstandige diere, onder meer dié wat teen Napoleon saamgesweer het, is summier in die openbaar tereggestel. “The tale of confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleon’s feet” (VII). “This was not what they had aimed at when they had set themselves years ago to work for the overthrow of the human race … they had come to a time when no one dared speak his mind” (VII). Napoleon het die diere selfs verbied om voortaan die bevrydingslied “Beasts of England” te sing. Squealer verduidelik: “The enemy both external and internal has been defeated. In ‘Beasts of England’ we expressed our longing for a better society in days to come. But that society has now been established. Clearly this song has no longer any purpose” (VII).

Die windmeul is deur saboteurs met plofstof vernietig maar die aanval op die plaas is afgeslaan. ‘n Nuwe militêre dekorasie is deur Napoleon ingestel, “the Order of the Green Banner, which he had conferred upon himself” (VIII). Die varke het ‘n krat whisky in die plaashuis ontdek, wat veroorsaak het dat die gerug versprei is dat Napoleon op sterwe lê, maar ure later was hy sober en kon gesê word dat hy merkwaardig herstel het. Hy het toe opdrag gegee dat gars op die plaas geplant moet word sodat hulle hulle eie drank kon maak. “All barley would be reserved for the pigs … the news soon leaked out that every pig was now receiving a ration of a pint of beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon” (IX). Met die uitsondering van die varke en honde is minder kos aan die diere voorsien. “A too rigid equality in rations, Squealer explained, would have been contrary to the principles of Animalism” (IX). Dit lyk glo maar net asof daar minder kos beskikbaar gestel word. In werklikheid is dit bloot ‘n aanpassing en nie ‘n vermindering nie. “Besides, in those days [toe die mense baas was] they had been slaves and now they were free, and that made all the difference” (IX). “They found it comforting to be reminded that, after all, they were truly their own masters and that the work they did was for their own benefit” (IX).

Lanterns is net in die plaashuis toegelaat sodat olie bespaar kon word. “If there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays had greater dignity than it had had before. There was more songs, more speeches, more processions. Napoleon had commanded that once a week there should be held something called a Spontaneous Demonstration [so “spontaan” soos die goed georkestreerde Soweto-skole-opstand in 1976], the objects of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm. At the appointed time the animals would leave their work and march round the precints of the farm in military formation, with the pigs leading, then the horses, then the cows, then the sheep, and then the poultry. The dogs flanked the procession” (IX), soos die ANC-toesieners/”marshals”. Twee perde “always carried between them a green banner marked with the hoof and the horn and the caption, ‘Long live Comrade Napoleon!'” (IX). Orwell noem nie of daar ‘n tradisionele pryssanger was nie.

“In April, Animal Farm was proclaimed a Republic, and it became necessary to elect a President. There was only one candidate, Napoleon, who was elected unanimously. On the same day it was given out that fresh documents had been discovered which revealed further details about Snowball’s complicity with Jones” (IX). “The word went round that from somewhere or other the pigs had acquired the money to buy themselves another case of whisky” (IX). Die windmeul is voltooi, maar daar was geen sprake van ‘n drie-dae-werkweek nie. “Napoleon had denounced such ideas as contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The truest happiness, he said, lay in working hard and living frugally. Somehow, it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer – except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs” (X).

“As for the others, their life, so far as they knew, was as it had always been. They were generally hungry, they slept on straw, they drank from the pool, they laboured in the fields; in winter they were troubled by the cold, and in summer by the flies. Sometimes the older ones among them racked their dim memories and tried to determine whether in the early days of the Rebellion, when Jones’s expulsion was still recent, things had been better or worse than now … And yet the animals never gave up hope … when they … saw the green flag fluttering at the masthead, their hearts swelled with imperishable pride, and the talk turned always towards the old heroic days, the expulsion of Jones, the writing of the Seven Commandments [Vryheidsmanifes?], the great battles in which the human invaders [setlaars?] had been defeated … No creature among them went upon two legs. No creature called any other creature ‘Master’ [Baas?]. All animals were equal” (X).

Op ‘n dag het die varke op hulle agterbene* begin loop en die domste diere, die skape, is ‘n nuwe lied geleer wat hulle oor en oor moes sing: “Four legs good, two legs BETTER!” (X). Op die muur was nog net ‘n enkele gebod te lees: “All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others” (X), soortgelyk aan die nie-rassistiese nuwe Suid-Afrika, waarin teen niemand behalwe die blankes op rasgronde gediskrimineer mag word nie. Die varke het na die radio begin luister, ‘n telefoon laat installeer en Napoleon het ‘n pyp begin rook en Jones se klere aangetrek. Mense van die buurplase het op Animal Farm welwillendheidsbesoeke afgelê. “For the first time animals and human beings were meeting on terms of equality” (X). Hulle het kaartspeletjies in die plaashuis gespeel en saam gedrink. Die eienaar van ‘n buurplaas, ‘n mens, “believed that he was right in saying that the lower animals on Animal Farm did more work and received less food than any animals in the country. Indeed, he and his fellow-visitors today had observed many features which they intended to introduce on their own farms immediately … Between pigs and human beings there was not, and there need not be, any clash of interests whatever. Their struggles and their difficulties were one” (X). Deesdae word dit inklusiwiteit genoem.

[* Samuel Johnson het in 1763 gesê: “Sir, a woman’s preaching is like a dog’s walking on his hind legs. It is not done well; but you are surprised to find it done at all” (James Boswell, The life of Samuel Johnson, London: Everyman, 1992, vol 1, p 290.]

Napoleon het namens die diere gesê “their sole wish, now and in the past, was to live at peace [ dus, hulle is onskuldig, hulle gewelddadigheid moet verskoon en vergeet word] and in normal business relations with their neighbours. This farm which he had the honour to control, he added, was a co-operative enterprise. The title-deeds, which were in his own possession, were owned by the pigs jointly” (X). Insgelyks bly die titelaktes van die plase wat die ANC van blankes konfiskeer in die besit van die regering. “His visitors might have observed, too, the green flag which flew from the masthead. If so, they would perhaps have noted that the white hoof and horn with which it had previously been marked had now been removed. It would be a plain green flag from now onwards” (X). “Napoleon was only now for the first time announcing it – that the name ‘Animal Farm’ had been abolished. Henceforward the farm was to be known as ‘The Manor Farm’, which, he believed, was its correct and original name” (X). Die laer diere het deur die vensters van die plaashuis gekyk na wat binne aangaan. “What was it that had altered in the faces of the pigs?” Die varke het soos mense begin lyk.

Dít is die verhaal van hoe ‘n rebellie na baie ontberings die sirkel voltooi het en toe geen revolusie was nie; van hoe Azanië weer Suid-Afrika geword het; van hoe die nuwe Suid-Afrika weer die ou Suid-Afrika kan word. Maar dit is ‘n onrealistiese, utopiese verbeeldingsvlug, want droogmaak is nie natmaak nie. Drome sal die brutale werklikheid nie sonder meer laat verdwyn nie. Dade is nodig.

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